Journal of Machine and Computing

Artificial Intelligence and Agent based Modeling for Power System Engineering

Journal of Machine and Computing

Received On : 18 January 2023

Revised On : 25 April 2023

Accepted On : 30 May 2023

Published On : 05 July 2023

Volume 03, Issue 03

Pages : 340-350


The fields of power electronics and fuel cells have emerged as key players in the development of sustainable power sources. The prevailing demand for fuel cells is projected to increase as they become the principal source of energy for portable electronics. A high-efficiency converter is a crucial component of the whole system and an absolute must for this specific use case. This is because the converter has a huge impact on the portability of the system as a whole in terms of size, efficiency, cost, and reliability. Choosing appropriate converter architecture is a key and important aspect of increasing the network of fuel cells for embedded systems since the converters alone accomplishes such as significant role in determining the overall efficiency of the system in this study, we take a look at the many topologies configurations of AC inverters and DC converters that are employed in the installation of fuel cells for autonomous and portable. The techniques of switching used in fuel cell energy conditioning are also analyzed in this research. The current issue with DC converters and AC inverters is also discussed at the end of this paper.


DC Converters, AC Inverters, DC-DC Converters, Fuel Cell Systems, Power Electronics, Zero-Voltage Switching.

  1. “U.S. energy facts explained - consumption and production - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA),” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18-Feb-2023].
  2. C.-Y. Chan, S. Chincholkar, and W. Jiang, “A modified fixed current-mode controller for improved performance in quadratic boost converters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II Express Briefs, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 2014–2018, 2020.
  3. Lalmalsawmi and P. K. Biswas, “Full-bridge DC-DC converter and boost DC-DC converter with resonant circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” in 2022 International Conference on Intelligent Controller and Computing for Smart Power (ICICCSP), 2022.
  4. Y. V. Rudenko and Institute of Electrodynamics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, pr. Peremohy, 56, Kyiv, 03057, Ukraine,“Modeling of processes on the basis of state space averaging in boost converter with magnetically coupled elements,” Praci Inst. elektrodin. Nac. akad nauk Ukr., vol. 2021, no. 58, pp. 44–54, 2021.
  5. M. W. Ahmad, N. B. Y. Gorla, H. Malik, and S. K. Panda, “A fault diagnosis and postfault reconfiguration scheme for interleaved boostconverter in PV-based system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 3769–3780, 2021.
  6. N. S. Ting, F. Aslay, and Y. Sahin, “A novel zero voltage transition boost converter and artificial neural network‐based estimation of converterefficiency,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 3251–3265, 2022.
  7. L. Hao, C. Namuduri, C. Duan, S. Gopalakrishnan, and N. Bucknor, “BEV range improvement using highly efficient downsized DC-DCconverter,” in 2021 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2021.
  8. J.-J. Chen, B.-H. Hwang, C.-M. Kung, W.-Y. Tai, and Y.-S. Hwang, “A new single-inductor quadratic buck converter using average-current-mode control without slope-compensation,” in 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2010.
  9. A. Singh and O. Yadav, “Design, coding and simulation of MPPT on DC-DC Buck and DC-DC boost converters,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Communication and Technology, pp. 420–427, 2022.
  10. M. Fernandez, A. Rodriguez, M. Rodríguez, A. Vazquez, P. Fernandez, and M. Arias, “Smooth-transition simple digital PWM modulator for four-switch Buck-Boost converters,” Electronics (Basel), vol. 11, no. 1, p. 100, 2021.
  11. I. Setiawan, M. Facta, T. Andromeda, H. Hermawan, and A. Syakur, “Unified and separated buck/boost averaged current control strategies of bidirectional DC-DC converter for DC microgrid systems,” Int. Rev. Autom. Control (IREACO), vol. 15, no. 4, p. 204, 2022.
  12. K. Boopathy and K. Bhoopathy Bagan, “A novel method of implementing real-time buck boost converter with improved transient response for low power applications,” in 2011 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2011.
  13. D. C. Pham, “Modeling and simulation of two level three-phase voltage source inverter with voltage drop,” in 2017 Seventh International Conference on Information Science and Technology (ICIST), 2017.
  14. J. Dudrik, M. Pastor, M. Lacko, and R. Zatkovic, “Zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM DC–DC converter using controlled secondary rectifier with one active switch and nondissipative turn-off snubber,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 6012–6023, 2018.
  15. D. de C. Pereira, B. T. Rosa, G. M. Soares, P. S. Almeida, F. L. Tofoli, and H. A. C. Braga, “Improved and accurate low‐frequency average modelling and control of a conventional power factor correction boost converter in continuous conduction mode,” IET Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 373–385, 2021.
  16. A. Ramirez, R. Sipahi, L. Diaz, and J. Leyva, “Delay-based voltage-mode control of switched DC-DC buck converters for fuel-cell power applications,” in 2020 7th International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies (CoDIT), 2020.
  17. M. Rimondi, R. Mandrioli, V. Cirimele, L. K. Pittala, M. Ricco, and G. Grandi, “Design of an integrated, six-phase, interleaved, synchronous DC/DC boost converter on a fuel-cell-powered sport catamaran,” Designs, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 113, 2022.
  18. S. Saha, S. Modal, M. Chattopadhyay, and M. Mukherjee, “A scheme for torque ripple minimization in BLDC drive using two-inductor boost converter,” in 2022 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices Society Kolkata Chapter (EDKCON), 2022.
  19. S. Patrabansh, M. Y. El-Sharkh, and M. Alam, “Dynamic modeling and simulation of a DMFC/UC based hybrid vehicular system,” in 2013 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2013.
  20. Y. Yuan, N. Peng, W. Liu, and C. Yi, “A linear-resonant hybrid bridge DC–DC converter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 1478–1488, 2023.
  21. F. M. Boendermaker, D. C. Zuidervliet, and P. J. van Duijsen, “A low cost implementation of a dual-stage interleaved bidirectional boost converter,” in 2022 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Energy Technologies (ICECET), 2022.
  22. F. Barati and B. Ahmadi, “Current sharing in non-coupled interleaved bi-directional boost converters for supercapacitor applications,” in 2015 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2015.
  23. N. Aoun, U. Kunz, and T. Turek, “In situ degradation measurements of a DMFC by a dynamic hydrogen reference electrode,” Meet. Abstr., vol. MA2013-02, no. 15, pp. 1652–1652, 2013.
  24. L. Barote and C. Marinescu, “Current-controller effectiveness for grid-connected converters: Comparative case studies,” J. Energy Eng., vol. 144, no. 1, p. 05017003, 2018.
  25. G. Chen, J. Dong, Y. Deng, Y. Tao, X. He, and Y. Wang, “A family of magnetic coupling DC-DC converters with zero-voltage-switching over wide input voltage range and load variation,” J. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1639–1649, 2016.
  26. S. W. Shneen, G. A. Aziz, F. N. Abdullah, and D. H. Shaker, “Simulation model of 1-phase pulse-width modulation rectifier by using MATLAB/Simulink,” Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 3, p. 253, 2022.
  27. G. I. Vacheva, K. Genev, and N. L. Hinov, “Modeling and simulation of DC-DC push-pull converter,” in 2022 57th International Scientific Conference on Information, Communication and Energy Systems and Technologies (ICEST), 2022.
  28. Arulmurugan Ramu and Anandakumar Haldorai, “The Characteristics, Methods, Trends and Applications of Intelligent Systems”, Journal of Computing and Natural Science, vol.3, no.2, pp. 091-102, April 2023. doi: 10.53759/181X/JCNS202303009.
  29. Anandakumar Haldorai, “Analysis on Intelligent Agent based Approach for Software Engineering", vol.2, no.4, pp. 175-186, October 2022. doi: 10.53759/181X/JCNS202202020


The authors would like to thank to the reviewers for nice comments on the manuscript.


"Leaders in Industry University Cooperation 3.0" Project, supported by the Ministry of Education and National Research Foundation of Korea.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Availability of data and materials

No data available for above study.

Author information


All authors have equal contribution in the paper and all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs is a more restrictive license. It allows you to redistribute the material commercially or non-commercially but the user cannot make any changes whatsoever to the original, i.e. no derivatives of the original work. To view a copy of this license, visit

Cite this article

Dae Geon Kim, “Artificial Intelligence and Agent based Modeling for Power System Engineering, Journal of Machine and Computing, vol.3, no.3, pp. 340-350, July 2023. doi: 10.53759/7669/jmc202303029.


© 2023 Dae Geon Kim. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.