Journal of Biomedical and Sustainable Healthcare Applications

A Comprehensive Examination of Human Brain Disorders

Journal of Biomedical and Sustainable Healthcare Applications

Received On : 18 March 2022

Revised On : 10 September 2022

Accepted On : 10 November 2022

Published On : 05 July 2023

Volume 03, Issue 02

Pages : 141-152


Various factors such as illness, genetics, and trauma have been identified as potential aetiologies for a diverse array of neurological conditions. The hazards, identification, and treatments for each type differ. Dementia, brain tumours, and other neurological disorders represent a subset of the various pathological conditions that can impact the brain. They may introduce challenges in the execution of mundane activities. The prognosis of an individual is influenced by various factors, including brain pathology, spatial distribution, and the degree of severity. The prevalence of brain diseases poses a significant concern in global healthcare due to the considerable stress associated with contemporary lifestyles. Consequently, there exists a compelling necessity for continuous investigations pertaining to the anatomy and functionality of the brain within the framework of both well-being and disease. Since antiquity, scholars have engaged in the inquiry and analysis of the functional and anatomical brain aspects, resulting in the extensive acquisition of knowledge in this field globally. Scientists have made significant progress in elucidating the aetiology of brain disorders and abnormalities, bringing them closer to a comprehensive understanding of these conditions. The present synopsis encompasses a compilation of cerebral ailments and dysfunctions, delineating their respective manifestations and the therapeutic modalities employed for their management.


Central Nervous System, Human Brain Disorders, Brain Tumours, Traumatic Brain Injury, Blood–Brain Barrier System.

  1. L. Sun et al., “Whole-brain monosynaptic inputs and outputs of leptin receptor b neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarii in mice,” Brain Res. Bull., p. 110693, 2023.
  2. K. -c. Ho, U. Roessmann, J. Straumfjord, and G. Monroe, “Analysis of adult human brain weight,” J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., vol. 37, no. 5, p. 627, 1978.
  3. J. Y. Choi et al., “A comparison of dopaminergic and cholinergic populations reveals unique contributions of VTA dopamine neurons to short-term memory,” Cell Rep., vol. 33, no. 11, p. 108492, 2020.
  4. L. Vígh and B. Maresca, “Dual role of membranes in heat stress: As thermosensors they modulate the expression of stress genes and, by interacting with stress proteins, re-organize their own lipid order and functionality,” in Cell and Molecular Response to Stress, Elsevier, 2002, pp. 173–187.
  5. B. Bell, S. Anzi, E. Sasson, and A. Ben-Zvi, “Unique features of the arterial blood-brain barrier,” Fluids Barriers CNS, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 51, 2023.
  6. L. Riemann et al., “Persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury receiving initial head computed tomography,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 538–547, 2021.
  7. N. Orlandi et al., “A retrospective multicentric study on the effectiveness of intravenous brivaracetam in seizure clusters: Data from the Italian experience,” Seizure, vol. 108, pp. 72–80, 2023.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Prevention, “Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP),” in Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines & Policies, American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014, pp. 1101–1102.
  9. A. Sankar et al., “Association of neurocognitive function with psychiatric hospitalization and socio-demographic conditions in individuals with bipolar and major depressive disorders,” EClinicalMedicine, vol. 58, no. 101927, p. 101927, 2023.
  10. S. J. B. Vos, P. J. Visser, and F. R. J. Verhey, “The role of CSF markers in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease,” Tijdschr. Psychiatr., vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 647–653, 2011.
  11. R. C. Holman et al., “Human prion diseases in the United States,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 1, p. e8521, 2010.
  12. P. D. K. Bechter, “What do the frequent CSF abnormalities in severe mental disorders mean?,” J. Affect. Disord. Rep., vol. 12, no. 100520, p. 100520, 2023.
  13. D. A. Desai, V. J. Rao, A. G. Jegga, P. S. Dhandapany, and S. Sadayappan, “Heterogeneous distribution of genetic mutations in myosin binding protein-C paralogs,” Front. Genet., vol. 13, p. 896117, 2022.
  14. M. R. Farlow, “Etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease,” Am. J. Health. Syst. Pharm., vol. 55 Suppl 2, pp. S5-10, 1998.
  15. M. Zhou et al., “The role of domain alterations in F1Fo-ATPase dysfunction associated to neurodegenerative diseases,” Ageing Neur Dis, p. 2, 2023.
  16. R. Gowthaman, N. Gowthaman, M. K. Rajangam, and K. Srinivasan, “Database of neurodegenerative disorders,” Bioinformation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 153–154, 2007.
  17. B. Li, D.-J. He, X.-J. Li, and X.-Y. Guo, “Modeling neurodegenerative diseases using non-human primates: advances and challenges,” Ageing Neur Dis, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 12, 2022.
  18. Yong W. and Long F., “Welcome to SZDB,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01-Jul-2023].
  19. R. P. Young and R. J. Scott, “Gene-gene interaction in ever smokers with lung cancer: Is there confounding by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in genome-wide association studies?,” J. Thorac. Oncol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. e23–e24, 2023.
  20. A. A. Lussier et al., “Genetic susceptibility for major depressive disorder associates with trajectories of depressive symptoms across childhood and adolescence,” J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 895–904, 2021.
  21. W. R. Bevan-Jones et al., “Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of the role of brain inflammation in dementia, depression and other neurological illnesses,” BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 1, p. e013187, 2017.
  22. R. Falcone, E. Brunamonti, S. Ferraina, and A. Genovesio, “Neural encoding of self and another agent’s goal in the primate prefrontal cortex: Human-monkey interactions,” Cereb. Cortex, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 4613–4622, 2016.
  23. N. M. Lind, A. Moustgaard, J. Jelsing, G. Vajta, P. Cumming, and A. K. Hansen, “The use of pigs in neuroscience: modeling brain disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 728–751, 2007.
  24. J. Greenwood, D. Wateridge, and P. Turowski, “Drug delivery through the BBB: Liposomes, nanoparticles, and other non-viral vectors,” in The Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Microenvironment, CRC Press, 2005, pp. 165–188.


The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Availability of data and materials

No data available for above study.

Author information


All authors have equal contribution in the paper and all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs is a more restrictive license. It allows you to redistribute the material commercially or non-commercially but the user cannot make any changes whatsoever to the original, i.e. no derivatives of the original work. To view a copy of this license, visit

Cite this article

Mohamed Abed, “A Comprehensive Examination of Human Brain Disorders”, Journal of Biomedical and Sustainable Healthcare Applications, vol.3, no.2, pp. 141-152, July 2023. doi: 10.53759/0088/JBSHA202303014.


© 2023 Mohamed Abed. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.